GE GAO | 高歌

4117F, Hornbake Library
4130 Campus Drive
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland 20742



Information Sharing in Nested and Hybrid Teams

The adoption of computer-based technologies augments each individual’s ability to deliver thoughts across boundaries, but it complicates information sharing at the team level. One question driving my recent endeavor considers how information sharing happens in nested and hybrid teams (e.g., gloal teams involving subgroups of members at different locations). I argue that effective information sharing at the team level will require three interlocked sets of actions. I explore AI-empowered solutions to facilitate these actions:

• Activity-centered information seeking, where team members identify the types of information that matters most for an ongoing work activity;

• Document-independent information retrieval, where team members gather selective information across various documents/applications and from prior work activities;

• Situation-sensitive information exchange, where team members indicate and, if needed, negotiate their situated needs of sharing.

Language Choice and Its Effects on Multilingual Teamwork

Modern work often requires people who speak different native languages to take joint actions. Despite the adoption of an English-only policy in many teams and organizations, extensive research has shown that work communication in reality frequently happens in "a cocktail of languages." I study how people balance the costs and benefits of using multiple languages through their daily work communication practices. Findings from this research suggest potential behavioral strategies as well as technical solutions to harness language diversity for successful teamwork.

Hautasaari, A., Yamashita, N., and Gao, G. (2019). How Non-Native English Speakers Perceive the Emotional Valence of Messages in Text-Based Computer Mediated Communication. Discourse Processes.

Gao, G. and Fussell, S.R. (2017). A Kaleidoscope of Languages: When and How Non-Native English Speakers Shift between English and Their Native Language during Multilingual Teamwork. CHI 2017.

Gao, G. (August, 2017). Understanding the Dynamics of Language Use and Its Effects on Daily Communication in Multilingual Teams. Doctoral Dissertation, Cornell University.

Hautasaari, A., Yamashita, N., and Gao, G. (2014). “Maybe It Was a Joke” - Emotion Detection in Text-Only Communication by Non-Native English Speakers CHI 2014.

Making Sense of Sensing Data in the Workplace

In-situ sensing as a recently developed methodology carries the promise of understanding people's work behaviors as they are developed over time. In a few recent projects, I explore the pros and cons of using automated vs. participatory sensing to study collaborative work under various settings. I am particularly interested in the strategies and steps that people go through to make sense of the sensing data. From there, I explore potential technology designs to facilitate the sensemaking process.

Gao, G., Sun, Y., and Zhang, Y. (2020). Engaging the Commons in Participatory Sensing. CHI 2020.

Mirjafari, S., Masaba, K., Grover, T., Wang, W., Audia, P., Campbell, A. T., Chawla, N.V., Swain, V. D., Choudhury, M. D., Dey, A. K., D’ Mello, S. K., Gao, G., Gregg, J. M., Jagannath, K., Jiang, K., Lin, S., Liu, Q., Mark, G., Martinez, G. J., Mattingly, S. M., Moskal, E., Mulukutla, R., Nepal, S., Nies, K., Reddy, M. D., Robles-Granda, P., Saha, K., Sirigiri, A., & Striegel, A. (2019). Differentiating Higher and Lower Job Performers in the Workplace Using Mobile Sensing.UbiComp/IMWUT 2019.

Akbar, F., Bayraktaroglu, A.E., Buddharaju P., Cunha, D., Gao, G., Grover, T., Gutierrez-Osuna, R., Jones, N.C., Mark, G., Pavlidis, I., Storer, K., Wang, Z., Wesley, A., & Zaman, S. (2019). Email Makes You Sweat: Examining Email Interruptions and Stress Using Thermal Imaging. CHI 2019.

Work Collaborations Across the Broundaries of National Culture

To win global markets, organizations today actively seek opportunities to incorporate informational and human resources across national and cultural boundaries. It attracts rising attention to culturally diverse teams and the way how they function. I study steps in team formation and communication processes that are most sensitive to cultural differences among collaborators. Findings from this research shed light on the design features of collaboration platforms that facilitate intercultural collaboration.

Gao, G., Hwang S. Y., Jung M., & Fussell, S.R. (2018). Beyond Information Content: The Effects of Culture on Affective Grounding in Instant Messaging Conversations. CSCW 2018.

Gao, G., Hinds, P.J., and Zhao, C. (2013). Closure vs. Structural Holes: How Social Network Information and Culture Affect Choice of Collaborators. CSCW 2013.

Zhao, C., Hinds, P.J., and Gao, G. (2012). How and to Whom People Share: The Role of Culture in Self–Disclosure in Online Communities. CSCW 2012.

Language Technology for Remote Conferencing

Remote conferencing set up a challenging scenario for people to maintain sufficient common ground and manage interpersonal dynamics. I study how various forms of language technology, such as automated speech recognition (ASR) and machine translation (MT), could be applied to benefit remote conferencing through creative ways. Based on findings from this research, I outline a novel design space where the interactions with language technology can elicit human communicants' adaptations to their partners.

Gao, G., Yamashita, N., Hautasaari, A., and Fussell, S.R. (2015). Improving Multilingual Collaboration by Displaying How Non-native Speakers Use Automated Transcripts and Bilingual Dictionaries. CHI 2015.
Best Paper Honorable Mention Award.

Gao, G., Xu, B., Hau, D., Yao, Z., Cosley, D., and Fussell, S.R. (2015). Two is Better Than One: Improving Multilingual Collaboration by Giving Two Machine Translation Outputs. CSCW 2015. Best Paper Honorable Mention Award.

Gao, G., Yamashita, N., Hautasaari, A., Echenique, A., and Fussell, S.R. (2014). Effects of Public vs. Private Automated Transcripts on Multiparty Communication between Native and Non-Native English Speakers. CHI 2014.

Gao, G., Xu, B., Cosley, D., and Fussell, S.R. (2014). How Beliefs about the Presence of Machine Translation Impact Multilingual Collaborations. CSCW 2014.